Effect of Personality Factor on Achievement Motivation

Shifa Rahman, 2014

Abstract: The research study ‘Effect of Personality Factor on Achievement Motivation’ was conducted to analyze how personality factors like openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism effect achievement motivation across both the gender and among undergraduate and postgraduate students. Two standardized questionnaires Big Five Personality Inventory and Ray Lynn’s Achievement Orientation were used. The stratified random sample comprising of 180 undergraduate and postgraduate students was used for the study. It was found that UG students are more achievement oriented than the PG students. Among the personality factors, PG students seem to have more agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness and they also show lesser neuroticism. Among the UG students, openness and neuroticism were found to be positively correlated with achievement motivation. Across gender, unlike popular belief, women were found to be more achievement oriented than men. And they are more extraverted but also score higher on neuroticism. Conscientiousness and openness were observed to be higher among men. On agreeableness both men and women scored the same. For women; extraversion, conscientiousness and openness and for men, agreeableness and conscientiousness correlated with achievement motivation. These findings show a relationship between personality factors on achievement motivation as was hypothesized and contrary to the other hypothesis, neuroticism seemed to be positively correlated with achievement motivation.

Results and discussion are enumerated here in brief for quick reference, if you require the complete study, please get in touch and pdf will be forwarded to your email.

RESULTS

Table-1 showing the group statistics of Gender and other factors

GENDERFactorsNMeanStd. Deviation
FemaleExtra9026.864.494
Male25.984.457
FemaleAgree9034.584.449
Male34.374.402
FemaleConsci9031.835.527
Male32.314.716
FemaleNeuro9023.435.428
Male22.525.795
FemaleOpen9035.295.119
Male36.095.009
FemaleAO9068.296.137
Male65.866.123

The above table shows that mean value of achievement orientation is higher among women. And among the personality dimension, women were found to be more extraverted and also score higher on neuroticism. On conscientiousness and openness men were found to have higher mean value. However, on agreeableness both men and women have got more or less the same mean value.

Table-2 showing the Independent Samples Test of gender

FactorsFSigTDfSig (2 tailed)Mean DifferenceStd. Error Difference
Extra.004.9501.316178.190.878.667
Agree.357.551.320178.749.211.660
Consci2.158.144-.624178.534-.478.766
Neuro.706.4021.089178.278.911.837
Open.006.938-1.060178.291-.800.755
AO.236.6282.661178.0082.432.914

Table-2 reveals significance between achievement motivation and gender and females were found to be more achievement oriented than male in the sample chosen for the study.

Table-3 showing the group statistics of UG and PG students and other factors

EDUFactorsNMeanStd. Deviation
PGExtra9026.693.914
UG26.144.998
PGAgree9035.594.386
UG33.364.177
PGConsci9032.434.917
UG31.715.334
PGNeuro9022.816.009
UG23.145.224
PGOpen9036.164.603
UG35.225.477
PGAO9066.776.565
UG67.385.904

From the Table-3, it could be analyzed that UG students have higher mean than the PG students in achievement motivation. But among the personality factors, PG students seem to have higher mean value than UG students in agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness and they also show a lesser mean value for neuroticism.

Table-4 showing the Independent Samples Test of UG and PG students

FactorsFSigTDfSig (2 tailed)Mean DifferenceStd. Error Difference
Extra9.617.002.814178.417.544.699
Agree.053.8183.498178.0012.233.638
Consci.295.588.944178.346.722.765
Neuro.487.486-.397178.692-.333.839
Open2.128.1461.238178.217.933.754
AO2.177.142-.658178.512-.612.931

Table-4 stresses on the significance between personality factors and the level of education. PG students were found to have more agreeableness than the UG students.

Table-5 shows correlation between males with the five personality factors and achievement orientation.










Correlations
 GENDEREXTRAAGREECONSCINEUROOPENAO
GENDERPearson Correlation.a.a.a.a.a.a.a
Sig. (2-tailed)       
N90909090909090
EXTRAPearson Correlation.a1.121.336**-.218*.445**-.007
Sig. (2-tailed)  .257.001.039.000.945
N90909090909090
AGREEPearson Correlation.a.1211.160-.249*.118.222*
Sig. (2-tailed) .257 .133.018.269.036
N90909090909090
CONSCIPearson Correlation.a.336**.1601-.256*.274**.223*
Sig. (2-tailed) .001.133 .015.009.035
N90909090909090
NEUROPearson Correlation.a-.218*-.249*-.256*1-.024-.117
Sig. (2-tailed) .039.018.015 .825.273
N90909090909090
OPENPearson Correlation.a.445**.118.274**-.0241.122
Sig. (2-tailed) .000.269.009.825 .252
N90909090909090
AOPearson Correlation.a-.007.222*.223*-.117.1221
Sig. (2-tailed) .945.036.035.273.252 
N90909090909090
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
a. Cannot be computed because at least one of the variables is constant.









As the first objective of the study was to see the effect of personality factor on achievement motivation among men and women, table 5 provides the statistics. From the above table, it can be deduced that agreeableness and conscientiousness show positive correlation with achievement motivation for males.

Table-7 shows correlation between PG students with the five personality factors and achievement orientation.

Correlations
 EDUEXTRAAGREECONSCINEUROOPENAO
EDUPearson Correlation.a.a.a.a.a.a.a
Sig. (2-tailed)       
N90909090909090
EXTRAPearson Correlation.a1.200.441**-.222*.377**.250*
Sig. (2-tailed)  .059.000.036.000.018
N90909090909090
AGREEPearson Correlation.a.2001.259*-.269*.204.362**
Sig. (2-tailed) .059 .014.010.054.000
N90909090909090
CONSCIPearson Correlation.a.441**.259*1-.197.252*.364**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000.014 .062.017.000
N90909090909090
NEUROPearson Correlation.a-.222*-.269*-.1971.012-.116
Sig. (2-tailed) .036.010.062 .910.275
N90909090909090
OPENPearson Correlation.a.377**.204.252*.0121.237*
Sig. (2-tailed) .000.054.017.910 .025
N90909090909090
AOPearson Correlation.a.250*.362**.364**-.116.237*1
Sig. (2-tailed) .018.000.000.275.025 
N90909090909090
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
a. Cannot be computed because at least one of the variables is constant.









Table-7 shows that among PG students, agreeableness and conscientiousness are more positively correlated with achievement orientation than extraversion and openness, which also show correlation with achievement orientation.

Table-8 shows correlation between UG students with the five personality factors and achievement orientation.

Correlations
 EDUEXTRAAGREECONSCINEUROOPENAO
EDUPearson Correlation.a.a.a.a.a.a.a
Sig. (2-tailed)       
N90909090909090
EXTRAPearson Correlation.a1.228*.324**-.300**.378**.052
Sig. (2-tailed)  .031.002.004.000.627
N90909090909090
AGREEPearson Correlation.a.228*1.295**-.212*.155.142
Sig. (2-tailed) .031 .005.044.144.181
N90909090909090
CONSCIPearson Correlation.a.324**.295**1-.373**.252*.103
Sig. (2-tailed) .002.005 .000.017.332
N90909090909090
NEUROPearson Correlation.a-.300**-.212*-.373**1.078.152
Sig. (2-tailed) .004.044.000 .464.152
N90909090909090
OPENPearson Correlation.a.378**.155.252*.0781.323**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000.144.017.464 .002
N90909090909090
AOPearson Correlation.a.052.142.103.152.323**1
Sig. (2-tailed) .627.181.332.152.002 
N90909090909090
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
a. Cannot be computed because at least one of the variables is constant.







Among the UG students, openness and neuroticism were found to be positively correlated with achievement motivation. This shows that the second hypothesis is not completely right as neuroticism could also have a positive impact on achievement motivation.

DISCUSSION

Everyone wants to be successful, but not everyone succeed. To understand the causes responsible for his/her success and failure, we need to understand the personality factors that contribute positively to his/her success. Therefore, present study seeks to see the effect of personality factors on achievement motivation across both the gender and among undergraduate and postgraduate students.

The study brought out an interesting finding that females are more achievement oriented than males. This could be attributed to the changing trend in this modern era where women are motivated to establish their individual identity. They are no longer contend in staying back at home and looking after the family, instead, they are proving themselves to be skilled in managing both the household affairs and the work life. And openness was found to be positively correlated with achievement motivation among females. Open people tend to be, compared to closed people, intellectually curious, they tend to think and act in individualistic and nonconforming ways and this quest for intellectuality would make them more aware and better adept to achieve. This could explain them being more achievement oriented than the rest. Extraversion, conscientiousness and openness were also found to be correlated to achievement motivation. However, as hypothesized, neuroticism did not show any correlation with achievement motivation. Among males, agreeableness and conscientiousness has showed positive correlation with achievement motivation. Agreeable people are friendly, reliable and conscientiousness includes the factor known as Need for Achievement. Conscientious individuals avoid trouble and achieve high levels of success through purposeful planning and persistence. They are also positively regarded by others as intelligent and reliable. Therefore, the finding confirms the well-established facts.

UG students were found to have higher achievement motivation than the PG students. But among the personality factors, PG students seem to have higher mean value than UG students in agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness and they also show a lesser mean value for neuroticism. PG students were also found to have more agreeableness than the UG students. This finding of PG students showing higher values for favorable factors and lesser on the unfavorable ones than the UG students could be attributed to their exposure and experience, resulting in increase in the maturity level. Among the UG students, openness and neuroticism were found to be positively correlated with achievement motivation. People high in openness could be more achievement oriented whereas people high in Neuroticism are emotionally reactive. The problems in emotional regulation can diminish a neurotic’s ability to think clearly, make decisions, and cope effectively with stress, which would have an adverse effect on achievement motivation but on the other hand; it could also keep the individual motivated and push himself/herself harder to get the desired results. Therefore, going against the second hypothesis, the study revealed that neuroticism could also be positively associated with achievement motivation. Among PG students, agreeableness and conscientiousness has correlated more positively with achievement orientation than extraversion and openness, which also show correlation with achievement orientation. This comes as no surprise that agreeableness and conscientiousness show strong correlation with achievement orientation.

As hypothesized personality factors were found to be associated with achievement motivation. And openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness and extraversion were all found to have a correlation with achievement motivation but different factors showed strong correlation with different groups. Surprisingly, against the second hypothesis of the study, neuroticism was found to be positively associated with achievement motivation for UG students.

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